On Earth, civilization grew up around river valleys. Rivers are useful as a water source, a food source, and a waste disposal system, but their most important function to a civilization is enabling travel and trade. It's fairly simple to build boats that can take you as far as you want (barring waterfalls or heavy rapids) and it's by far the cheapest way to transport bulk goods until you have railroads. Eventually you can build actual ships that can cross the seas, enabling much greater trade and cultural exchange.
Now imagine a situation where transport of people or goods by water is impossible/prohibited, e.g. due to religious belief (the "Plant my feet on solid ground" sect) or hostile wildlife in the water. Boats and the like are not built or used, ever, for transporting people or goods -- it's as if the "boat" feature was completely removed. Could civilization still develop? How would it be different compared to our Earth?
Note that rivers are not impenetrable barriers: No ferries allowed, but bridge-building is still possible (including pontoon bridges, though they must not be moved when people or goods are on them). Bodies of water still can be forded if they're shallow and narrow enough, though as @user535733 pointed out, ford sites would be very valuable and would probably be militarily defended and have tolls/customs booths, etc.
First case: a "from the ground up" civilization that's just left the stone age. If necessary, the civilization has the wheel, road-building (and sufficient population that building roads is feasible), and draft animals.
Second case: A 35th-century colony ship arrives on an untouched Earth-like planet; they have many motorized vehicles (including road construction equipment) plus the ability to fuel them and maintain them indefinitely, but no ability to build new ones until they establish an industrial base.
In both cases, how does a founder of a new settlement choose a site? How does civilization grow up around the settlement, compared to how it did in Earth? Does the restriction on trade and travel lead to more centralization of power and delayed scientific progress?
Related question: Why would people in 500+ years' time be using waterways for transport?