Yes. In fact, there are quite a few options.
Willk has already mentioned sulfur. In this case, primary producers produce solid sulfur as an anabolic waste product, which consumers must eat along with the rest of their food, rather than breathing in. (Unless, of course, they are from the planet Sar, which is hot enough that sulfur exists as an atmospheric gas, and molten copper chloride stands in for water.) Actual sulfur producing bacteria tend to accumulate crystals of sulfur in their cells, rather than releasing it all directly into the environment, so you could expect sulfur-producing plants to do the same, as they have even bigger excretion logistics problems than unicellular photosynthesizers do!
Some real-world bacteria can also perform carbon fixation using free hydrogen directly, in environments where free hydrogen exists. And there are organisms that generate hydrogen from the anaerobic respiration / fermentation. So, theoretically, there could be a cycle there; however, in practice, if you have a lot of hydrogen in the air, as well s carbon dioxide, they will spontaneously react over time (or not so spontaneously, as organisms can get energy by catalyzing the reaction themselves, which is exactly what methanogens do on Earth) until one or the other is depleted.
In a sulfuric acid world, plants could acquire hydrogen from sulfuric acid, producing solid sulfur trioxide or gaseous sulfur dioxide as a waste product, which consumers would then eat or breathe in place of diatomic oxygen. Such worlds are also likely to have a lot of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid around, which given sufficiently energetic light to work with, or photosystems which can accumulate energy from multiple photons (or work around it by just generating ATP / the local equivalent until there's enough of that around to power the reaction) could also be split to acquire hydrogen. I would not, however, expect the release of straight Cl2 of F2 gas, however, as those are highly reactive (maybe on a really cold world around an F-class star...)--rather, I'd expect to see them bound up in metal complexes (just like iron-oxidizing bacteria do with oxygen), or halocarbons--gaseous carbon tetrachloride and carbon tetrafluoride. Unfortunately, those are very stable chemicals, so they won't be very useful for completing an ecological cycle with consumers. Rather, you'd expect them to be feedstock for further exotic anabolic processes--extra sources of carbon and less-reactive forms of halogens.
Like the sulfuric acid world, but more plausible, while I am not aware of any Earthling organisms that do this, photoautotrophs could also acquire hydrogen (as carbon, and sometimes oxygen) and reducing potential from simple organic molecules, like methane, methanol, ethanol, acetate, etc., with more heavily oxidized organic molecules as the waste product. For example, in a world with a CO2/methane atmosphere, plants could rip hydrogen off of methane to produce ethane, ethylene, and/or acetylene gas as byproducts, which would be breathed in by consumers to regenerate gaseous methane for producers to consume and repeat the cycle.
Of course, acetylene is a pretty good energy storage molecule all by itself, and ethane is a good place to start building longer alkane and alkene chains, so as in the case of the sulfuric acid world these really aren't "waste" products like oxygen so much as they are additional useful products of photosynthesis, of which there is sometimes an excess which is useful to other organisms.
In a world with a slightly more heavily reducing environment, you can expect a decent amount of ammonia to be available. Stripping hydrogen from ammonia is easier than stripping it from water (although if you only go part way, you get some very energetic molecules, like hydrazine--the ammonious equivalent to hydrogen peroxide), so it would not be unexpected for that, rather than the less-abundant hydrogen sulfide or the more tightly-bound water to serve as hydrogen donor and source of reducing potential. The waste product in this case is nitrogen, which is famously not easily breathable,as dinitrogen is a very stable molecule that does not like reacting with anything. Except, it does react slightly exothermically with hydrogen to give you back your original ammonia, completing the cycle; there are no (known) organisms on Earth which can acquire energy through nitrogen reduction, because Earth is a highly oxidizing environment, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria have to expend more energy than ammonia production gains them in order to acquire the necessary reduction potential in the first place, but that situation does not hold in this hypothetical environment. So, your consumers would presumably perform hydrogenic fermentation and nitrogen fixation for a positive energy yield in both processes, closing the nitrogen-ammonia cycle instead of the oxygen-water cycle.
And in an even more strongly reducing environment, where excess hydrogen has destroyed all CO2 in the atmosphere, leaving behind free hydrogen, methane, water, and ammonia, your producers will be producing waste hydrogen rather than waste oxygen or nitrogen, and looking to acquire chemical oxdizing potential rather than reduction potential for anabolic processes. The consumers will not excrete any single gaseous molecular species to close the cycle, but the whole gamut of fully-reduced water, methane, and ammonia to resupply the producers with raw materials.
And of course, as a final note: in none of these cases should you necessarily expect glucose specifically, with its specific elemental ratios, to remain the go-to energy storage and structural molecule produced by alien photosynthesis. It wouldn't even be stable on a sulfuric acid world, and other types of molecules--like alkenes or organonitrogen compounds--will be competing for some of its functions in exotic chemical environments. Heck, even on Earth, there are organisms that get most of their energy from metabolism of fats and/or proteins rather than sugars, and the components of those cycles may end up more important than the basic oxygen-water cycle or its local equivalents.