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I mean as in a city that is not situated at the bottom of the ocean but is not floating on the surface of it either. What would a plausible size and population size be for this kind of construct? Could humans live in such an environment for their whole life? And how deep could such a thing be able to go? I know we(humans) are researching/developing ways to grow food in outer space, so could that technology be used in this as well? And if we can grow vegetables and/or fruit would it be possible for animals to live in the city as well?

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    $\begingroup$ It is quite obviously just an engineering problem. You may find out that it makes no sense economically (colonizing Antarctica or Siberia or the Sahara are much, very much easier problems); but it could be done if we absolutely wanted to. It could be as large as you please (probably made of multiple interconnected pieces), it could go as deep as you like, and yes, unhappy people could live there for all their miserable lives. You asked the question: this means that you see some unsolvable problems. What are those problems in your opinion? The question may benefit from a sharper focus. $\endgroup$ – AlexP Sep 14 '19 at 12:09
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The closest thing we build looking like what you describe are nuclear submarines. They can spend a lot of time underwater, taveling around at various depths, and considering their crew they could be seen as small villages.

However they depend on land for their sustenance: supplies, fuel and obviously crew all come from there.

In principle it would be possible to use a nuclear power plant to supply hydroponics and start a food chain on board to supply the crew.

The problem would remain for the nuclear fuel and the spare parts. I doubt that such a thing would have more than a few years of autonomy, at best.

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