In medieval society corresponding to approximately year 1200 in Holy Roman Empire, how much agricultural land would there be on average per person? What would be typical composition of the land? (Divided into crop fields, orchards, pastures for farm animals, fallow land, forests, etc.)

I tried estimate as population / country area, but such result includes mountains, lakes, forests and unused land, while I am interested specifically in the cultivated land area, and its breakdown into fields / pastures / orchards and other categories. The answer does not need to be completely precise, good estimate is OK.

Related question.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Overlapping question, not quite a duplicate, but close. worldbuilding.stackexchange.com/questions/61970/… $\endgroup$
    – Cyn
    Commented Aug 10, 2019 at 19:46
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    $\begingroup$ Those "meadows" are called pastures. You need about 1 ha per person (this includes people not engaged in agriculture, such as tradesmen, servants, professionals, clergy, soldiers etc.) Do not forget that you also need forests for timber (timber was by far the most common construction material) and firewood (wood was basically 99% of the fuel used in Europe at that time). Agricultural land would be divided half and half between pastures and growing crops. Fallow land is one third of the land used for crops. About 75% of the people worked in agriculture full time from 8 or 9 years of age. Etc. $\endgroup$
    – AlexP
    Commented Aug 10, 2019 at 21:34
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    $\begingroup$ Thank you for the comments. I narrowed the region to Germany and I narrowed my question to asking about the amount of the land and its composition. I can split it into two questions if you think it is better (land per person + composition of land), but to me it seems the second is just direct extension of the first one. $\endgroup$
    – Irigi
    Commented Aug 11, 2019 at 6:24
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    $\begingroup$ There are two ways to come to an answer for this question. The first is to understand how much land one person needs. This requires much knowledge that might be difficult to attain. The second way is to assume that human population was mostly close to the carrying capacity for the state of their technology. All you need then is an estimate of the population of 11th century Germany (approx. 12 million) and to divide the area (Holy Roman Empire 900,000 sqkm) by the population which gives you about 0.075 sqkm per person, which is 75 ha (including agricultural land, forests, mountains, lakes, etc) $\endgroup$
    – user67090
    Commented Aug 11, 2019 at 11:02
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    $\begingroup$ @B.L.E.: That's what some English sources call the German-speaking lands during the last part of the MIddle Ages up to the early modern period; the intent being to reflect the emergence of a proto-national feeling in parts of the Sacrum Imperium Romanum Nationis Germanicae. For example, in Wikipedia: The Holy Roman Emperor had been often called "Emperor of all the Germanies"; contemporary news accounts frequently referred to "The Germanies". $\endgroup$
    – AlexP
    Commented Aug 11, 2019 at 11:18


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