So you want a coordinate system for the universe...
Let's assume that your teleportation system relies on a centralized information source which has some existing knowledge such as the constantly updated coordinates of the absolute center of mass of every inhabited planet that your species knows about.
Now getting to anywhere in the inhabited universe starts by providing the name (or id number) of the destination planet.
Let's assume that on the planet, there is another repository of knowledge which records and maintains the distance from its' absolute center to surface level along every possible 3 dimensional vector out from that center. Now all you need to get to any point on the destination planet's surface, is the two radial angles which specifically identify a given vector. Let's simplify this slightly by using the angles as they were during a particular universally agreed upon moment in time. The planet side repository can then do the grunt work of translating those time-locked reference angles to the actual angles required to reach the same location at the moment of teleportation. This eliminates the need for requiring the traveler to account for planetary rotation and pitch changes. They refer to a particular location on a planet using the angles which pointed to it at the millisecond that the planet joined the empire, and local computers figure out which direction leads to that same location now.
From there all we need is a height adjustment to handle the positive or negative distance you want to arrive either above or below the surface. Including this would allow you to arrive on a second floor or in a subterranean tunnel or even in a particular point in orbit of the planet. In that last case, you might have a missing velocity challenge, but your plummet downward is your problem, not a failure of the coordinates system.
So a universal address would include...
1). A planet name
2). Two highly precise radian angles which describe a referential vector from that planet's center to a time-locked point on its surface
3). A height adjustment from the planet's surface at that specific de-referenced location.
With those three components, anywhere in the known universe is just a button press away.