Could a semi-isolated country island about 3,000,000 square miles and 1000 miles south of India avoid becoming a colony and develop into a rich and strong modern state today? They have about the same technology level as the Ottoman empire. Guns, cannons, shipbuilding skills, and a population of about 100 million.
closed as too broad by Cyn, StephenG, 011358 smell, user535733, elemtilas Jul 7 at 0:58
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Consider Japan during the Age of Exploration. This example suggests that the key was not geographic isolation but a strong government that could and did reject contact.
In Medieval times, there were even more countries which managed to resist colonization. An interesting question here is if the spread of Christianity and Islam would be colonization. Consider Persia.