Probably; near-carnivorous human societies have developed before.
According to wikipedia: "Mongolian cuisine primarily consists of dairy products, meat, and animal fats". As we all know from world history, the Mongols were able to create a complex society with a food surplus that supported non-producers, including soldiers, nobles, and craftsman. Native Americans living on the Columbia river also generated food surpluses by harvesting the salmon runs, and their society included nobility as well craftsman who made goods both practical(houses, blankets, canoes) and artistic (such as totem poles). Pacific Native diets were not 100% carnivorous, but they were also harvesting fish at well below the carrying capacity of the rivers. If they needed more fish to round out their calorie counts, they could have gotten it.
This is a bit of an apples-to-oranges comparison, because you asked about a species and I am answering with examples of societies, each of which is predated by neighboring societies with settled lifestyles. But they do demonstrate that in certain environments, you can get a food surplus from meat without previously relying on argiculture in the same region.
Now, if you are imagining eating steak every day, large populations cannot possibly be maintained. The inefficiency from cows is too much. Here are some considerations to show how this limit may be circumvented:
Organ meat, marrow, and blood
Cows yield less than 50% of their live weight in steak, but the other 50% doesn't have to go to waste. In fact, it is probably necessary to eat some organs because muscle tissue does not contain all of the vitamins and nutrients essential for life, and you can't get anything from plants.
Milk, eggs, and blood(again):
You don't have to slaughter an animal to derive nutrition from it. By harvesting milk, eggs, and (carefully) blood, you can cheat the predator vs prey equation because these are cheap for the animal to replenish. Aside from fishing, this is probably the most likely "in" we have for initially developing agriculture. Perhaps some innovative humanoids built primitive birdhouses that could be regularly harvested for eggs, until gradually you ended up with the domesticated chicken.
Birds and fish:
Birds travel long distances. This means that they can eat food relatively, then fly to you, where you catch and eat them. This essentially increases your harvesting range to farther than you can walk or ride, because the bird will consume calories somewhere else, and then bring them to you in the form of its meat. If you doubt that this is an appreciable source of energy, look up the passenger pigeon, which used to migrate in flocks that blocked out the sun. Many other comments and answers have pointed to fish (and shellfish) which massively increase the carrying capacity of a region by using the nutrients found in the water as well as those found on land,
I don't see an entire civilization surviving on scavenging. I think if you did, you would drive away the predators that you were taking food from. I have no source for this so feel free to disagree. But you can use dogs and falcons to increase hunting yields. Dogs are also extremely useful for raching/herding. Dogs provide another possible origin for domestication, because they are potentially more useful as hunting partners than as a single, quick meal. Once you realize that you can domesticate dogs, why not give it a try with other animals?
When you get a big windfall of meat, whether because you culled the herd, took down a mammoth, or over-hunted during a migration, you can't let it go to waste. Your carnivorous humanoids need to be connoisseurs of all the different ways to dry, smoke, or salt their favorite meals. This is an initial source of food surpluses, although it presents challenges in carrying the preserved meat with you to new hunting grounds.
For your carnivorous humanoids, as for humans, the origins of civilization are probably lost. Some or all of the above ideas may have worked together, maybe in different combinations in different parts of the world.