According to Moore's law, the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles about every two years. Therefore, a modern household computer has the computational capabilities of a supercomputer several decades ago.
If one took a modern (2019) very high-end gaming computer (see exact specifications below) and somehow managed to send it back in time one hundred years, how would science be able to advance as a consequence?
We are going to assume that the computer lands at the MIT-campus, including modern peripherals and ample instructions for the OS and a few popular programming languages.
The computer would have an Intel Core i9-9980XE processor and Nvidia Geforce RTX 2080 Ti graphics card, accompanied by 128 GB RAM, 1 TB of SSD- and 14TB of HDD storage. All this in an ATX form factor, powered by (for example) a Corsair AX1600i power supply. The OS is a dual-boot setup with both Linux and Windows. Both operating systems have software installed to run the most popular programming languages.
Which fields of science might advance thanks to this computer? What kind of simulations/calculations would be possible decades earlier thanks to it? Could (vastly) increased computational performance have enabled earlier breakthroughs in some fields?
Even though LSerni posted an excellently written answer about the consequences of the fact that the computer traveled through time, I am less interested in the implications of time-travel and more interested in what could be done with the computational capabilities of the device (complex simulations for example). I am also less interested in the possibility of reverse-engineering the computer. I want scientists of the time to essentially treat it like a black box, with no knowledge of its inner workings.