Depending on spaceship design: possibly, especially if they grow up there.
While ingrained reflexes and responses can be relearnt, they do take time and practice to get adjusted to. You can see this when people try to learn to ride backwards bicycles. People get it, but it takes time to relearn automatic responses.
If someone has experienced having to aim slightly to the left to pee, the first few times they try it planetside they'll probably be cleaning the floor (as well as if they're tired, drunk or not really concentrating).
Thanks to @ALambentEye for a video on how quickly these sorts of quirks can develop: clicky link 1. On the flip-side, this does indicate that any klutziness would be relatively short-lived as well.
Thanks to @Cody as well for this video of astronauts adapting to conditions back in gravity: clicky link 2
I'm not sure about the effect on people who grew up on the ring. I'd anticipate that they'd have a harder time adjusting given that their early developmental stages involve a different set of head-physics. This study involving the development of self-righting in rats reared in microgravity indicates that there might be a developmental window for developing certain kinaesthetic behaviours. However, earth-born people can quite readily adjust to microgravity, and your scenario doesn't involve such a drastic change as life on the ISS. Given that, I'd expect your native wheel-worlders to struggle a little more, but still not experience permanent differences.
Another neat point: I'd expect your wheel-people would jump strangely too.
When you jump on a wheel that's spinning to produce its gravity, you don't land precisely where you jumped from. The reason for this is that while you're in the air above the wheel, your horizontal momentum describes a smaller arc around the centrepoint than the wheel. This means that the wheel beneath you in effect spins further than you do, so when you jump directly upwards you land slightly away from your departure point.
This happens on earth, but because it's circumference is so enormous the effect is minuscule. The smaller a spinning object gets, the more pronounced it gets.
So your wheel-people would probably try to hop up a kerb and stack it the first few times they've worked it out.
I expect I've butchered the description of why that works. There was an excellent explanation I was going to link to but I can't find it! Happy for feedback on that :)
Edit: @MikeNichols has made a very good point that the effects of this will be directional depending on which orientation someone is standing in the spinning wheel. This probably suggests that if consideration is made to this in the design of the spaceship people will get used to consciously working out these sorts of issues so will likely have little issue adapting to environments where you don't need to consciously accommodate for them.
If you want this to happen, you need some select oversights in spaceship design. A one-way system around the ring, and/or toilets only facing one direction would do it.