TL;DR: no. "all wireless communications" is a very, very broad category, and to disrupt all of them might well involve rendering the environment so hostile that there might not be any people around to communicate.
Radiation, as provided by radioactive decay, is not a very good way of disrupting communications. A decent amount of radiation, enough to be hazardous to living things, can disrupt or permanently damage semiconductors, but you could put the clever bits of a radio in a shielded environment and have your antenna on the end of a cable and you'd probably be good to go.
You can disrupt lower-frequency radio signals (like, under 30MHz) by disrupting the ionosphere, and you can do that with various kinds of astronomical upset in the sun. It'll need to be serious and ongoing, as shortwave radios can be built very simply and cheaply that can communicate around the world, albeit with low bandwidth compared to what we're used to these days.
After that though, things start getting tricky. VHF radio is line-of-sight, but you can bounce it off things like planes, satellites or even the moon if you really wanted to. Your hypothetical meteor showers? Might make long distance VHF communication easier!
UHF and microwave transmissions can be scattered off the troposphere allowing point-to-point communication across fairly substantial distances... this was how a lot of long distance communication to inconvenient places was done back before satellite communications became cheap and easy.
You don't even have to use radio if you don't want to... free space optical networking is a thing, and whilst it is only line-of-sight, there's plenty of scope for the tech to scale up nicely. Optical networking isn't going to be vulnerable to electrical interference in the atmosphere.
So what can you do? Well, if you're happy for the disruption to be relatively short, you could arrange for a nuclear war. Lots of high-altitude EMP will be extremely bad for modern communications infrastructure, and strikes at certain places and cities will seriously disrupt wired communication too.
Nukes aren't the only way to do that, but they are pretty good at it. Something more along the lines of a natural disaster would be another Carrington Event which would take out satellites and earthbound power grids though optic fibres and various kinds of electrical infrastructure would be basically unaffected.
A serious meteorite shower would effectively disrupt communications by smashing everything up. As a natural disaster counterpart to a Carrington event, you might be able to handwave the two as having the same origin.
If you want the disruption to be widespread, long-lasting and affect multiple technologies you're basically going to need some kind of technology to do it for you. Souls in the Great Machine was a book which had a post-apocalyptic society without electricity or radio as a result of orbital microwave weapon platforms which would smite any detected EM sources on the earth's surface. There are plenty of other ideas that could have the same effect, and be of human or alien origin as you prefer. That's probably the best direction to look in.