Technically the answer is yes. If you have coal, you can make coal tar and coal gas. They aren't as good as actual oil, but they're still a splendid source of hydrocarbons for industrial and medicinal use. I'm sure with sufficient chemical cunning, a big fossil hydrocarbon-based chemical industry could arise.
With your modern knowledge you could probably kickstart an industrial, chemical and pharmaceutical revolution... but there's a good chance that you won't live long enough to see it pan out. Building an industry from nothing will be very hard, especially when there's no mass production, electricity or even much education around!
Note that none of the suggestions (with the exception of liquid oxygen) I've made below require or make use of your magic. If something is easy enough to be achievable, you can probably get the raw materials even back in medieval times. All the telekinetically lifted molten tungsten in the world won't make you any anthraquinones.
Ignoring cost and time, what kinds of chemicals would you be able to make?
Obvious things you've missed out in your list include fuels such as biodiesel (skip the steam age! you are adding steam engines to your list of inventions too, right?) and useful chemicals such as chlorine-based bleach or nitrate- and phosphate-based fertilisers all of which should be in your capabilities to produce.
More importantly, why not introduce electricity and electric motors? Not chemistry or magic, but incredibly useful nonetheless. Not to mention hot air balloons and gliders...
Plastic (any sort of it, including bakelite or polylactic acid)
For bakelite you'll be needing formaldehyde and phenol. These might be within your ability to make. The former can be made from methanol (also called wood alcohol, cos you can make it from wood) and the latter from coal or coal tar.
I suspect that most other plastics will fall into the category of "Things that will be made as a result of the revolution you started" rather than "Things you'll make whilst still alive". The raw materials for PLA are potentially available to you, and it is possible to make other polymer feedstocks from coal-derived chemicals(see methanol to olefins for a modern example) but the synthesis is likely to be far too hard for your medieval wizard. Making the catalysts needed for polymerisation is probably all but impractical. Maybe some future wizard will discover them and name them after you.
Explosives: TNT, guncotton, nitroglycerin, smokeless powder
Obvious answer: gunpowder. It might already be popular, depending on your time period. Given potassium nitrate (the oxidiser in gunpowder) you can make nitric acid. Potassium nitrate, also known as saltpetre, is a naturally occuring mineral and you can make it from manure or even urine. Sulphuric acid can be made from sulphur (also a naturally occurring mineral, and an ingredient for gunpowder) with a little effort, and with those two acids you can make all sorts of fun things, including guncotton and nitroglycerine.
TNT is Quite Hard to make, even these days. Composition C might well be possible though... you'll need some sulphuric and nitric acids and hexamine, and to make that you'll need formaldehyde, so there's nothing there that's obviously insurmountable.
Oh, all sorts. This might be the easiest place to start building your empire. Introducing anaesthetics might be as simple as making some ether or chloroform. You'll need some ethanol and some sulphuric acid for the former, which should be straightforward to procure. Extracting exciting alkaloids from plants (eg. morphine) isn't rocket science!
The big improvements in medicine would be things like germ theory, hygiene and antibiotics, and these aren't necessarily in the domain of the chemist (but you could introduce them anyway, I'm sure).
Rocket fuel of any sort (other than liquid oxygen and hydrogen)
Gunpowder again? Hydrogen peroxide is also possible, though neither will get you in to space. You'll mostly be wanting better metallurgy, I suspect, to make good use of your new propellants. Liquid hydrogen would probably be too hard to work with, but LOX would work with all sorts of other fuels that you could probably get your hands on. Alcohol/LOX, anyone?