"We need to see things in order to accomplish even the simplest task." is quickly debunked by even the briefest consideration of lives of blind scientists here on earth.
Human's lack of natural ability to see x-rays has not diminished our capacity to detect, measure, utilize, and interact with x-rays.
If a society develops to the point of being able to produce electronics and radio technology, then they will have little trouble "discovering" the stars. If they cannot 'see' something naturally, then they will be able to build tools and systems to translate emissions into a data-stream that they can interact with. Exactly the same as humans have done.
Can't see something in nature? Observe its effects as it interacts with something else that you can detect, and use that property to study the phenomenon.
Can't see x-rays? Observe how they cause some materials for fluoresce when struck with x-rays, and use that to explore, study, and refine how you can interact with them.
Can't see anything? Observe how light interacts with specific electronics, and develop a photo-diode or similar to construct tones or vibrations that you can observe, and build that into greater and more refined sensing technology.
You may wish to consider the fact that earth has blind astronomers. There is far more to space related research than being able to see it with your own eyes.
To reinforce how a human's visual senses are just a small part of how we observe the world, consider primitive interactions with fire. What are the main points to observe about fire?
- It is bright
- It makes a loud crackling sound
- It emits heat that can be felt at a distance, and a LOT of heat that can be felt if touching it directly.
- It emits smells based on what is burning and how it is burning
- It changes the look and texture of material it consumes
Two of those points involve sight, three if you count smoke, and four of the five directly involve other senses.
Sight may be useful in learning about fire, but is not required to learn and understand it from a scientific standpoint.
Vision isn't even all that involved in learning to make fire. If you've ever tried using friction and sticks to start a fire, what is the first thing you observe? Do you see that you're beginning to "start a fire"? Of course not, as the first thing you'll observe is that rubbing things can make them warm.
As an experiment: Close your eyes and rub your hands together really hard and fast.
Open your eyes and let your hands cool off, and repeat the same experiment, but this time watch it.
Did being able to see it make it any easier to observe the heat?
Probably not - Because human vision doesn't do much with regards to heat...
So go back to starting a fire with sticks. What is the next thing you observe as you come closer to starting a fire?
- See sparks? No
- Smell a change in the wood? Yes.
Unless your sense of smell is especially bad, even by human standards, you will smell a change before you even see wisps of smoke. And by that point you will be able to feel a major change in the heat (And heat is related to fire...) far more than you will be able to see something that looks like fire...
If you don't know any thing about starting a fire from sticks, then you might observe that it sometimes becomes easier to start the fire if you feel just the right amount of wind coming from the right direction, and you can quickly learn more about how air is related to fire.
But that was all just how you can observe fire without relying heavily on vision. What about something else important to really advancing science, like electricity?
Primitive interactions include things like:
- Static sparks: See the light, feel the shock.
- Electromagnetism: Moves things, which may be felt or heard
- Current through a wire creates Heat long before it creates visible light...
Vision very much helps with the advancement of science. (And would make for a far more rapid advancement through early metal-ages with far fewer nasty burns...) But it is very far from a requirement for an individual or even a species to achieve great scientific advancements.
[Ironically, signing off: - A Visually Impaired Scientist...]