In a distant future, a spaceship was investigating a gravitational anomaly somewhere within a chartered sector in the Andromeda galaxy. A disaster strikes and the spaceship was found marooned on a nomad planet, there is nothing else except the rogue planet and plasma cloud drifting through space. How do I explains the typhoon wind speed hitting 500km/hr on the steppenwolf planet? The planet is twice the mass of Earth but only have a weak magnetosphere whereby the strength is estimated to be about a third of Earth's? Complement question: establish a connection between the plasma cloud in space and the storm on the planet (assuming both phenomenons aren't of alien origin).
The planet has massive content of radiocative elements in the rocks. The heat generated by the radioactive decay and the large temperature differential due to the lack of a star power the winds. As a side effect, the intense volcanism ejects into space radioactive dust, which decaying with alpha and beta particles supply the plasma cloud of it constituents.
Besides planet and plasma, you have a third player.
/a spaceship was investigating a gravitational anomaly/
Your anomaly can produce winds: on earth these are called fall winds (the wind is falling due to gravity) or katabatic wind
A katabatic wind (named from the Greek word κατάβασις katabasis, meaning "descending") is the technical name for a drainage wind, a wind that carries high-density air from a higher elevation down a slope under the force of gravity. Such winds are sometimes also called fall winds.... Katabatic winds can rush down elevated slopes at hurricane speeds, but most are not as intense as that, and many are of the order of 10 knots (18 km/h) or less.
Your planet eccentrically orbits the gravitational anomaly - maybe it is the same thing as the plasma cloud, with an unaccountably dense plasma? It is a highly eccentric orbit, and on close approach the anomaly augments the gravity of the planet, producing these periodic hurricane katabatic winds.
Or if you have other things in mind for the anomaly, ok. Do it the way it happens on Earth in the antarctic. In the antarctic, these winds are produced by increased radiational cooling at elevation. The colder denser air falls down the mountain. You have wind, so you have gas, so your atmosphere is not all frozen, so your planet must be heated somehow. But I have to think a planet without a star will have some unusual heating going on and it will not be hard for you to explain how at night, gas which has gotten hot during the day and gone up gets very very cold and comes roaring back down.