Extinction is almost certainly inevitable.
In another answer, I addressed the effects of atmospheric compression. I failed to extend the analysis to the interior.
With a 10x increase in gravitational attraction, the apparent weight of the entire planet will increase by at least a factor of 10, as will the pressures at any given (proportional) depth.
With increasing pressure, density increases, so the planet will become smaller. Exactly how much is going to depend on the depth of the rock involved, and the exact composition. I'm not willing to do the effort required to determine the exact pressure/density relationship of rock at these pressures (it's rather an obscure field) so let's take a target density increase of 100% overall.
In this case, the volume of the earth will decrease by 50%, which means the radius of the earth will decrease by about 20%. Note that this will decrease the area of the earth by about 30%, but the surface material density will not increase at all (relatively speaking). This means that the earth's crust will massively wrinkle, with essentially a complete destruction of all surface features.
Worse, the transition from 100% to 80% radius (about 800 miles) will essentially occur in freefall, at least the early stages. This will have two effects: first, everything on the surface will be pulverized by the equivalent of a fall of several hundred miles at 10 times the current gravitational acceleration. Second, the kinetic energy released by the impact will liquefy the crust into an incandescent mass of molten rock. The energy released by the fall of 1 kg 100 km in a 10g field is about 1 MJ, which is enough to raise granite or basalt by more than 1000 degrees K. Since 100 km is about 60 miles, a 20% radius reduction (800 miles) will produce temperatures more than 10 times as great.
When 24 hours is up, the reverse (rebound) effect will occur, with the reduced-area crust ripped apart as the area of the earth increases by 45%. The crust will redistribute over a fairly short period, even if it has cooled to the point of solidifying in the 24-hour grace period - which simply isn't going to happen.
Granted, the 100% density increase is fuzzy at best, but two things should be kept in mind:
1) Since the earth becomes significantly smaller, the pressure increase becomes even greater, since gravitational attraction gets greater as distance to the point of attraction (the center of the earth, in this case) decreases. This will increase the amount of density enhancement.
2) Given the catastrophic nature of the results, even if the density does not increase as much, the effects will remain catastrophic.