In an earth-like world, what can I provide as examples of areas where high energy is generated naturally?
I'm looking for sources of energy other than heat, for e.g, volcanoes and geothermic vents.
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Depending on what kind of energy you're interested, this phenomenon(Catatumbo lightning) could provide an approach to high static/electrical energy. I'm pretty sure that if it's possible on earth at this rate it would be possibly even stronger if the conditions are even stronger than they're here. Which is likely, as you can create the conditions as you're creating an alternative world. This would also provide a reason why this energy is available in only specific places.
Just some very basic ideas:
Now if we're talking immediate power unleashed in a very visible and observable way:
As far as I know, energy on the earth comes from 3 places; The Sun, The internal heat of the planet itself and Nuclear energy stored in elements.
If you are looking for naturally occuring energy sources other than heat, you'll have to look at the sun and nuclear energy. Examples of possible sources could be
Solar flares, which could be a source of occasionally spiking naturally occuring energy, which is discussed nicely over here
Faultlines between tectonic plates, where energy would be generated in the form of earthquakes. Which are non-thermal but technically caused by the internal heat of the earth.
In addition to these you've got loads of phenomena such as wind from storms, lightning, strong magnetic fields and ocean currents. Which are all energy sources which could be made to spike or be abnormally high.
A tidal bore, often simply given as bore in context, is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current
There's a lot of energy there although it takes a lot of engineering to tap it and it's only available at certain times of the day. But on the bright side, those times are predictable.
Maybe a certain terrain configuration that makes forming of clouds easy. This could give you a lot of natural water power in the form of rivers. Or you could make it so a large gold/iron/conductive metal deposit is located in such a location, increasing the chances of lighting striking a certain point, allowing you to harness it's power.
Caves on a cliff side using the power of the sea to generate winds? Something like https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_organ , but on a much larger scale.
A tall, icy mountain next to a hot seaside, generating lots of snowfall and avalanches on the mountain, or a mountain with wide temperature swings in short periods of time (a bit sci-fi, but I suppose it could work).
A few ideas: