Computer scientists like to break machines down into finite state machines, so they know all the possible states of a current machine. By doing so, they know exactly what the machine is doing, what it can do, how it will work, where it can move onto, everything. Basically, someone who saw that diagram could know everything about that machine.
You could say these people have an uncanny ability to see all the states and the states leading on from it, they have a great ability of foresight to see and analyze all the outcomes of one particular variation. That is for their current situation.
Chess algorithms do a similar thing but assign a value to each outcome and decide which is the best path to follow through with. They constantly check after each move to see if there is a new 'better' path to occur based on what their opponent played.
Basically, quick processing speed and the ability to adapt will allow people to basically 'consider' all outcomes and decide which to choose.
We all already do this in fact, we're just not incredibly effective at it, however even in the modern day, some people are wired up differently and can do stuff like this to an extreme level of efficiency. Bobby Fischer was a world chess champion and I believe was Autistic. He could do incredible things at the time and analyze so many outcomes in a few seconds. However, that came with practice.
You could tie in a natural ability for certain humans to have this feat and the ability to quickly learn, allowing them to become a master of anything with half the effort. Hence they could become incredible at analyzing things in that relevant field in a blink of an eye. Sherlock Holmes is another example if you're looking for people who can do what you suggest.