Tiny sapient species are a staple of both sci-fi and fantasy, with both faeries and who-like races that live on dust specks found across the pages of various books. We've even had some excellent questions about them, like this one about armed sparrows. In reality, however, it seems as though there should be limits in terms of size that set a lower boundary on how big something can be and still be sapient. Below this size, a species would simply not have enough neurons to be able to form a brain that is capable of abstract manipulation of concepts. What would this size be, and what factors, such as chemical composition or structure of a life form, might influence it?
By a sapient species, I specifically mean a species capable of the types of thought that would allow for the development of things like advanced technology. The species need not necessarily have a human-like experience of reality.