So in the normal Earth ecology, heat is constantly being introduced by the primary source of energy in the solar system; the sun. That heat is effectively trapped in the atmosphere by what we call the greenhouse effect; certain gases actually trap certain wavelengths of the light and heat from the sun in the atmosphere, which warms up to an equilibrium temperature at sea level.
The more of what we call greenhouse gases are in the atmosphere, the more heat that's trapped, and the hotter that equilibrium level is. Hence, global warming.
What you say about 'artificial' cooling is correct; you're effectively extracting heat from a localised area, but net heat in the atmosphere is increased. Usually via greenhouse gases used to generate the energy to do this in the first place.
In your scenario however, you've got a perfectly environmentally friendly way of keeping the core temperature of the planet cool. So, in that regard, if the sun is still shining on the earth and the temperature is kept even (and above freezing, 0oC) then your cooling will never have a material effect on the ecology because the sun will counteract the work of your cooling magic, and you're not using it at a level that can overwhelm the sun.
So, how much energy is that? Well a useful estimate of the sun's heat output that directly hits the earth at sea level is 1KW/m2 per day. If your cooling magic is absorbing or removing anything up to 950 W/m2 you're probably fine. Plants aren't that efficient with their photosynthesis, and only use about 1% or 2% of the sun's energy for their endothermic reactions. Leave about 5% of the sun's energy coming through to be sure, and you're okay. Anything beyond that and you're not going to have enough energy left for the plants.
I want to stipulate here that because we're using magic, we're NOT talking about dimming the sun to 5% of its current output reaching the earth; we're talking about 95% of the sun's energy being dissipated if it isn't captured by plants, solar panels, or the like. Cooling in this instance is about the removal of all the excess or reflected energy, not the actual light energy that plants need (and reflect most of anyway).
Anything beyond that and the sun is fighting a losing battle, and eventually, your world will snowball and die.
Interestingly enough; if your cooling magic works by directly manipulating the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, all bets are off. The simplest and easiest way to 'magically' cool an entire planet would be to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, and also other greenhouse gases like methane. If your magic actually generates its effect by magically removing these gases from the atmosphere, then even a small change can cause a massive amount of damage to the ecology, which is what we believe happened during the snowball earth epoch in the Earth's history.
Of course, if that's the case, then the good news is that you can counteract this effect through industrialization. Ironically enough, this magic could be the cure for global warming by counteracting the carbon emissions of modern life and forcing the inhabitants of your planet to thrive and grow and progress using all the fossil fuels they want - otherwise, they'll freeze.