Having recently discovered that torus-shaped planets can actually form, I've started to consider using that design as a setting for a map(no real purpose in mind, just map making for the sake of it). How would I realistically simulate the formation of landmasses?

  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to Worldbuilding, Lysander Cox! If you have a moment, please take the tour and visit the help center to learn more about the site. You may also find Worldbuilding Meta and The Sandbox useful. Here is a meta post on the culture and style of Worldbuilding.SE, just to help you understand our scope and methods, and how we do things here. Have fun! $\endgroup$
    – Gryphon
    Feb 3, 2019 at 3:46
  • $\begingroup$ As you, I'm curious about this, I suspect there are many in the same doughnut ship, but haven't thought of a way to ask a question about it yet, please try the sandbox as Gryphon sais, we're with you. $\endgroup$ Feb 3, 2019 at 4:13
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    $\begingroup$ Sorry, I'd just like to clarify what the issue with the question is. $\endgroup$ Feb 3, 2019 at 5:11
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    $\begingroup$ @Lysander Cox Which "the question" ? You have three distinct questions. The realistic simulation one, for a video game or "simulate" in what sense? Tectonic plate rules - would they apply the same as spherica planets. Not my field, basically noone's field, it's speculative and may come down to a matterof opinion - which is off topic.Would the necessary... etc. How would anyone know? We would need to speculate again making this opinion based. Then you need to specify what would constitute a "good" answer. The Sandbox can help you refine all this. $\endgroup$ Feb 3, 2019 at 14:17
  • $\begingroup$ Hi Lysander - that's a very interesting concept for a question. Joining the other recommendations for using the sandbox. Two suggestions for starters: 1. SE sites work with a "One Question / One Answer" model. Consider splitting this question to several linked questions (e.g. "How will tectonics change for a toroid planet?", "Can a toroid planet survive impacts strong enough to catalyze plate division?", "Mapmaking: How to realistically simulate landmass formation for a toroid planet?") - If you care about a single question in particular, try making it more obvious to readers. $\endgroup$
    – G0BLiN
    Feb 3, 2019 at 18:19

1 Answer 1


Artifexian has a great video on this subject on YouTube! In it he explains that due to the inner radius being smaller than the outer, continental plates moving inward will need to shrink and thus experience folding, creating mountains. Plates moving outward will have to grow and thus are torn apart. The surface gravity on the 'equators' is also lower than at the poles (slightly inside of the poles it is at a maximum) which makes for very large mountains.

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to WorldBuilding.SE! I'm afraid link-only answers aren't allowed here, as links aren't guaranteed to always work. You should edit the relevant points from the video into your answer. $\endgroup$
    – F1Krazy
    Feb 4, 2019 at 22:49
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    $\begingroup$ @F1Krazy Makes a good point. Please edit the relevant content into the question or it will likely get deleted. You should also check out the tour and help center to get an idea of how the site works. Welcome to world building. $\endgroup$
    – James
    Feb 4, 2019 at 22:53
  • $\begingroup$ Until the pending edit goes through, you can watch the video at youtube.com/watch?v=1J4iIBKJHLA $\endgroup$
    – Spencer
    Feb 4, 2019 at 23:30

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