General Mineral Availability
You will definitely find many of the same minerals as on Earth. Also all the elements will be present on the surface. However, on Earth we don't process soil to extract its gold, it's not worth the effort. Instead we look for natural concentrations of the mineral we want. Some of these concentrations are done volcanically, others through sedimentation, and some through the actions of life forms.
So if you're willing to put the effort and energy into it, you can get everything you need from processing the Martian soil.
If you're interested in large scale operations for a robust Martian colony, then you'll need to find concentrations of the minerals / elements that you want.
Depending upon location and from a rock / ore perspective, you'll have access to
- All of the volcanic rocks and the ores that go with it. These are
where we find precious metals.
- Some sedimentary rocks. Iron deposits were placed here by biological
- You can conceivable find very high metallic concentrations at the
bottom of some of the smaller craters. Meteorites that formed large
craters are completely vaporized.
Here's a detailed examination of Martian surface mineralogy
If you have questions about specific elements, minerals, or ores we can try to put together plausible details.
Rare Earth Elements (REE)
From a gaming perspective, you might use the Rare Earth Elements. The elements are exotic sounding and some of them are quite valuable - which equals difficult to extract. These (also abbreviates as REE) can be found almost everywhere but they're expensive to extract. You could posit that Mars' soil has much higher concentrations of these elements than Earth. For example on Earth the average concentration for these is like 50 parts / million. On the moon it's more like 5 parts / thousand.
These elements are named:
They are worth \$5.00 - \$500.00 per gram (1/10x - 10x) the price of Platinum, with Promethium being the rarest and most expensive
Platinum Group Elements (PGE)
And asteroids/meteors tend to have higher concentrations of the Platinum Group Elements:
Rhodium, the most expensive of the group costs about \$90.00 / gram. Most of the rest cost about \$15.00 / gram. Gold and Platinum cost about \$35 & \$50 / gram respectively.
You could also hypothesis that buckyballs and/or nanotubes are found in the craters of carbonaceous impacts (I don't know this is true but it'd be fun if they did).
I've got a complete table for Terrestrial concentrations compared to the concentrations found elsewhere (moon, asteroids, meteors, Universe, etc.).
Viable space colonies will require access to volatiles (gases, ices, etc.) of many different compounds for their own self-sufficiency - water (for oxygen, rocket fuel, & water) and ammonia (using its nitrogen for crops) especially.
It is unlikely in near-term space colonization scenarios that any of these raw materials will be price competitive with those produced on Earth for use in the Earthly market.
However, they will be highly price competitive or even greatly lower in price for utilization in/on other space colonies, even those in low Earth orbit. So any sort of growing space infrastructure will require plenty of materials from mining sources.
It is possible / plausible that some off-Earth manufacturing processes could produce items unique to those environments and highly valuable on Earth from the materials extracted from various sources. For example, it is possible to produce "perfect" ball bearings in zero G environments. We could propose that processes to produce long-strand nanotubes (useful for making super strong cables like those necessary for a space elevator) can only be made in space or on other bodies (like Mars).