"Magic and science coexist." A tired phrase by now, because it's found in so much fiction. But can it make sense?
Assume a world broadly parallel to our own. It has experienced its Age of Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution.
There is also magic (type yet undefined). It should allow human magicians who cast spells, whole species that are magical in nature, locations and objects with persistent magical properties. The usual stuff.
The Masquerade is not in effect. It is, and always has been, impossible to keep a fundamental part of the nature of the world secret.
How to keep magic separate from science?
"Science" includes many fields of study. How to make it such that magic is not one of them? How to make magic resistant to study by experimentation?
Science must be "logical" and "rational" and magic not. A person with a rational mindset should not look to magic as the first answer. Why?
And how and why would the scientific method ever have developed if a major part of reality was resistant to it?
I left the nature of magic open because that's an inseparable part of the question. What type of magic could fit this world? Is there any magic system that can make sense here?
I've asked this question on other sites before. A couple important points resulting from that:
Magic can't be totally random, since it must be possible to control it to some extent, or there could be no magicians.
The suggestions I previously received that came closest to satisfying my requests hinged on irreproducible results. These permitted spellcasting, but ruled out the other aspects of magic.