Actually not sure whether this would work, but think of a planet with a very low gravity. This would automatically lead to the water forming more or less sphere("bubble") like shapes.
If you still need a big surface, make your planet have no core.
Or, even better, have a Lagrange point at the surface due to another planet - eg the two planets are orbiting each other, such as Pluto and Eris, in such a constellation that objects on the surface are almost equally dragged towards both of them.
However, one planet still has to drag the stronger, else the bubbles would float in air, but not come down...
With such a low impact of gravity, air would be mainly influencing your bubbles.
Example - Water bubble in space, NASA
A different attempt would be magnetic fields. We all know that electromagnetical forces(Couloumb-Force) are far stronger than Gravity. So they can influence the water in such a matter that it forms bubbles.
Example - balloon next to water
And now think of some particles in the air that are charged with a high positive or negative charge. They would get a water bubble around them...