How cloud formation occurs
Warm air near the surface of the Earth can rise for many reasons. As it rises, it undergoes adiabatic cooling. Since the pressure drops with rising air, the gas must expand slightly while the temperature drops, as suggested by the ideal gas law ($PV = nRT$). As the temperature drops, the relative humidity of the air rises.
If the air rises far enough, and cools enough, then humidity exceeds 100% and moisture precipitates as water droplets. This makes clouds. If enough water precipitates in the clouds, the droplets become big enough that they cannot be suspended in the air and they fall as rain (or snow, depending on temps).
Clouds can form at different altitudes depending on local conditions. Clouds never form above deserts, since there is so little moisture in the air. Clouds form at ground level above wet jungles, since humidity is already 100 %, and any cooling will cause moisture to precipitate. For other climates and conditions, cloud altitude varies.
How is this affected on your world?
Lets put your pressure to altitude map side by side with Earth's
altitude Your press Earth press
(meters) (atm) (atm) ratio
0 17 1 17
1000 15.3 0.89 17
2000 13.8 0.78 18
3000 12.5 0.69 18
4000 11.3 0.61 19
5000 10.1 0.53 19
10000 6.0 0.26 23
15000 3.6 0.12 30
20000 2.2 0.05 44
Air pressure on your planet is relatively higher at altitude, meaning the pressure gradient with increasing altitude is lower than it is on Earth. Since the cooling is driven by pressure changes (again, $PV = nRT$), if lower the rate of pressure change with altitude, then we lower the rate of temperature change with altitude.
Therefore, on your planet, cloud formation occurs at slightly higher altitudes than it would on Earth, given similar temperature and humidity conditions at ground level.