If the Kessler Effect were to reach critical mass and render it nigh-impossible to put anything in orbit, allowing for some handwavery, what sort of options are there for replacement geolocation with any degree of accuracy?
If the Kessler Effect were to happen tomorrow, we could easily replace the GPS satellites by the mobile phone towers. GPS systems already uses the higher degree of accuracy of phone towers to pinpoint precise location in a city.
Of course, that would work only wherever there is such a tower, thus the scientists doing field research and tagging animals in the outback would be in trouble. But, for the vast majority of us, we would hardly notice any difference.
And it would cost nothing to make this change, since the hardware is already in place. Just some recoding of the software so it stops looking for satellite signal and we'd be more or less set.