Conventional surface ships will likely continue to sail at around the same speeds as today, simply because the laws fo physics are not going to change. A wet navy monohull ship today is approaching the maximum possible hydrodynamic efficiency, and there are good reasons to suspect the monohull form will survive into the 22nd century, since it is well developed, has a considerable volume for equipment, fuel, and other consumables, is stable even in high seas and can provide persistence (the main reason to have a navy in the first place: the ship can remain on station for weeks or even months, something aircraft, orbiting spaceships or may other potential systems cannot do).
Looking for the ability to go faster would require firstly defining the parameters of how fast the ship should go, how long it can sustain flank speed and "why" it needs to go so fast? There are a number of ways to go about this.
Sustaining a modest increase in surface speed can be best done by minimizing the friction between a ship and the water. The ship can inject air or some sort of slippery polymer between the hull and the water in order to minimize friction. The amount of speed that you can gain might be limited, especially by the amount of energy needed to inject the "interface" fluid, and the amount of fluid carried if you are not using air. Research is ongoing today, and it is a relative to the Prairie/Masker system used to reduce noise on US Navy ships.
Air lubrication system
For higher speeds, we need to lift the hull from the water entirely. Hydrofoils, lifting bodies and surface effect systems use different means to do this. Hydrofoils are essentially wings, and lifting bodies are similar, but larger and likely more robust than foils, although the large size may result in lower potential top speeds. Lifting bodies also have the potential to lift larger displacement ships.
1970 era test hydrofoil HMCS Bras d'Or on display today
Sea Flyer, a modern experimental vessel using lifting body technology
Surface Effect Ships are forms of hovercraft, using the body of the ship and "skirts" on the bow and stern to trap air (usually injected by a powerful turbine engine) to lift most of the hull out of the water. The advantages are Surface Effect Ships are more efficient than hovercraft, but like hovercraft, are very power hungry.
SES 200 test bed
The SES series of test ships achieved speeds of 100 knots, so transit and dash speeds are very impressive, and when the air cushion is off, the ships can still remain on station like a conventional ship.
Beyond the 100 knot speed, we need to leave the water entirely, and are now in the realm of airplanes or Ground Effect Vehicles. One intermediate step is to use wings to partially lift a ship from the water, in effect inverting the idea of a hydrofoil (Aerodynamically Alleviated Marine Vehicle). This has not really been demonstrated to date.
Aerodynamic alleviation concept
Of course, a true flying boat provides the ability to fly to deployments anywhere on the globe, and then land and float on water to provide persistent presence. The apogee of flying boat design is likely the Martin "Seamaster", a jet powered flying boat roughly the size and performance of a B-52. This should qualify as a true "boat" once at sea, and provides a high subsonic speed performance as well.
Martin Seamaster in the water
Seamaster in flight
Amazingly, the Seamaster is an amphibian!
I would suspect that by the 22nd century, most wet navy vessels would actually be some form of flying boat, to make the force as versatile and rapidly mobile as possible.
Blended wing body flying boat