Absolutely not, because it would not even be close to the earth. Literally light years would separate where the same co-ordinates were today vs 1855. But if you hand wave that inconvenient detail aside, the orbital velocity would not be the same between the two periods of time, and things would scatter. But if you hand wave that away, the sun and moon would not be in the same position. And if you hand wave that away,...
Well, you get the picture.
Lots and lots of handwaving the inconvenient details away.
But once all is said and done, and the details tucked away, dismissed, or taken care of, Sputnick was visible by the naked eye. Or at least the booster was.
It seems by the number of comments this has generated, that the intricacies of time travel BETWEEN THE SAME SPOT are not generally comprehended nor appreciated. So, some basic high school physics, in a very simple non-math presentation, for the uninformed.
Let's put it bluntly.
Time travel goes against just about every known law, principle, or otherwise generally accepted feature of physics. Conservation of energy, conservation of mass, conservation of momentum, for starters. Inertia, instantaneous change in speed, instantaneous change in the center of gravity. The speed of information travel, and instantaneous speed of transfer of information across centuries, for another. But even if all of these details are handwaved away as inconsequential, there are more immediate problems with being in the same orbit.
First, let's talk about some of the basic principles of real estate pricing - location, location, and location. The earth rotates. Between noon and midnight, it has gone through half a rotation. So if something drops out at noon, and arrives back in the same spot at midnight, it is half way around the world. The earth goes around the sun. In six months, it is at the opposite side of the sun in its orbit. So if something drops out today, and reappears six months from now, the earth is half way around the sun. It drops into empty space. But the sun moves through the galaxy. And the galaxy moves through the universe. Oh, and the universe is expanding. So if something drops out today. and drops back in 180 years ago, the earth is no where near where it is now. Or where it was, now. Potentially hundreds of light years away. To be 'in the same spot', it needs to drop in where the earth WAS, not where it IS. But where it WAS is now where it IS, when it drops in. Instantaneous transfer of communications just got worse, because now it is not just through time, but through a great deal of space as well.
When you are talking orbital dynamics, it gets even worse. To drop back into the same spot in a geostationary orbit, it has to drop in at exactly the same millisecond in the time, day, year of the orbit that it left.
But in that 180 years, the earth's rotational speed has changed. The day is not the same length. The earth's orbital speed around the sun has changed. The year is not the same length. So where exactly is 'now', 180 years ago?
The moon will have changed its position in orbit. The sun will have changed its position in the sky. The moon's precise orbit and speed have changed. With the amount of solar dust and debris that the earth has accumulated, the earth's mass will also not be the same. 60 Tons Of Cosmic Dust Fall To Earth Every Day. The exact speed and position of any satellite depends instantaneously on the convergence of all of the gravitational forces on it at that time, and all of the acceleration forces thereby generated. Put the moon and the sun in a different position, the gravitational forces change, and the satellite instantly goes through a very rude course correction. But where did the energy for that course correction come from? What happens to the inertia? The momentum? Seems you have a satellite in some crazy orbit.
Things in space rotate around their center of gravity. Take a substantial portion of the 'thing' away, and the center of gravity changes. The spin becomes very erratic. Orbital stability is lost. Instantaneously.
There are stresses throughout the orbital facility. They are all balanced, spread out. So, suddenly, these stresses are not balanced. They do not move around and readjust, as they would in a breakup. Rather, they just disappear. A strut holding something up by transferring the fore, is no longer transferring a force. But that force did not deflect to something else. The energy just ... well, just what? The satellite has become very unstable. In a normal breakup, you have Newton's Law. Here, you have an action with no reaction. The force gets applied in only one direction. No 'equal and opposite' about it. I am not sure you will have anything left, except dust and particulate debris.
The earth's rotation, as I mentioned, has changed. An orbit designed today to keep it geostationary or more generally geosynchronous, will not be the same orbit as 180 years ago. If satellites today are not adjusted periodically, their orbit decays, partially for this reason. The algorithms for GPS satellites are being continuously updated to account for this. Where, oh were, is the debris heading? No worries about seeing the debris, it will be a long, continuous, very spectacular 'meteorite shower'.
Hand wave all this away, by saying that it is in the same inertial frame of reference? Absolutely not so. The inertial frame of reference on earth today is not the same inertial frame of reference 180 years ago. Remember that slowing down/speeding up of the earth's rotation and it's velocity around the sun? And the expansion of the universe? Add in the fact that the centrifugal/centripetal acceleration is/are not the same. Not at all the same inertial frame of reference. Too much delta-v. Even time itself would not be the same. By microseconds? What happens when the inertial frame of reference changes instantly, even if only by a microsecond? I think we are in the realm of quantum effects.
So handwave all of these instantaneous changes on the space debris away as just inconvenient factors?
To keep things the same when everything is different, you need handwavium wrapped up in more handwavium embedded in handwavium with an abundance of handwavium mixed in.
Time travel was so much EASIER in 1855. The physics textbook was far too thin for these inconvenient details to mess it up.