So I am in a sci-fi world where I am trying to figure out a system of super-national and multi-national organizations that would retain the independence of nations while also defining how colonization, trade, international relations and war can be performed and also how it can have the power to enforce its rules while still allowing the nations to be independent. Basically what I want these organizations to do is to control the common resources shared by men of all nations: the air, the ocean, space and colonizable worlds, this organization is totally committed to the preservation and exploitation of these resources and attempts to prevent the tragedy of the commons from taking place with common resources, they also ensure that nations trade, perform diplomacy and other such things according to certain guidelines, and the most important thing is that they have the power to enforce their rules.
So there are many bodies with this inherent structure within the solar system, the ones that govern worlds are planetary governates, the ones that govern planetary systems are orbital councils and the one that governs the colonization of the solar system as a whole is the orbital council, these nations are multi-national in origin but most of them are super-national in practice, so let me explain what that means.
Multi-national organizations are organizations that are created by multiple nations to facilitate co-operation between nations to achieve certain, agreed upon, goals.
Super-national organizations are organizations that may be created by multiple nations but it has the property that it doesn't require the co-operation of nations to enforce its goals, it attempts to achieve certain goals that it decides independently from the nations and forces them to comply and it has the power of force to do so.
Now I want these governates to be super-national organizations that can tell nations what they can and cannot do to a certain extent, but I still want total national sovereignty to exist, ie. the right to declare war, the right to colonize other worlds, the right to claim territory, the right to independently exploit resources and so on.
The organizations must be able to make rules independently from nations and they must be able to enforce those rules against un-co-operative nations using military force, however a nation must retain almost all of its rights including how it governs its citizens and the management of exclusive resources (exclusive resources are resources that can be exploited by one group without affecting the ability of another group to exploit their own) as-well as the right to declare war. The organizations won't always be as benevolent as they should be and sometimes they will become less independent then they are designed to be but what's important is that they are able to do the things I want them to do (manage and preserve common resources and controlling trade, war and diplomacy as far as it relates to the management of common resources) while also not having to infringe upon the independence of nations.
Edit: Governates are a term used inside the story, do not edit it out.