I just realized that on earth many natural resources used for building throughout history could be considered unique to earth, materials such as bone and wood are products of terrestrial evolution and are unlikely to be found in alien ecosystems, and while things like ore and stone would probably be present for humans it required the use of wood for us to be able to forge metals so even with metal ore an alien race might not be able to use it. This problem gets even worse if the alien race doesn't live on the ground for example a race of creatures that live in the upper atmosphere of a gas giant, who would not have access to the ground and earthen materials. So what materials might a primitive alien race use to make tools and buildings out of?
closed as too broad by kingledion, JBH, StephenG, Shadowzee, Cort Ammon Aug 27 '18 at 4:54
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This is awfully hypothetical, but the short answer is "Whatever is left over when life forms on that planet die".
If you think about it, MOST of the primitive raw materials humans (and other terrestrial tool-using species) have ever used are bits left over from other living things after they've died. Vines, fronds, bones, sinew, hide, wood, it's all parts of other living things.
So, whatever the living things on that world leave behind when they die that's solid, that's your raw materials.
Add to that "any naturally occuring objects that your species can pick up", and that covers rocks, and that's pretty much it in terms of raw materials for primitive life.