I have a super-earth world. The surface of the world is shallower due to extra gravity, so shorter mountain ranges and less ocean depths. The world orbits a binary star system at a distance of the furthest region of the habitable zone, both of the stars having masses of 0.93x that of our suns. The world is highly volcanic, approximately 15 to 16 times more volcanic than our planet.

Surface gravity: 1.35x of Earths.

Atmosphere thickness: 10x of Earths (a result of it being highly volcanic in comparison to earth.)

Atmospheric composition: Nitrogen 78%, 15% Oxygen, 5% Carbon dioxide, 2% Trace gases.

Temperature: Peak ~ 110 degrees F | Average ~ 90 degrees F | Lowest ~ 80 degrees F

Land coverage: 75% water, and 25% land (but less water being present on this world as the oceans oceans are shallower mostly due to a lot of island formations)

Radius: 7750 kilometers

Day/Night length/full rotation: 28 hours.

Axial tilt: 53 degrees.

Orbital period: 1.15 years

Eccentricity: 0.025

How would the weather of this planet seem around coastal regions among the tropics on average? (I can't be more specific than this as I haven't yet worked on the map, I apologize, please give me answers, even if it's a brief speculation)

(Also please check my other question regarding about the creature evolution of this world.)

  • $\begingroup$ Alright, I quit stack exchange. Thank you for your support though. I tried what I can for this question, alright? I can't give more detail regarding about this simply because I need to know the climate before I invest my time in creating the map or other things, because I don't want to redo days of work over and over again. And I'm not really asking whether this place is habitable for humans or not, and I did get info regarding of volcanism from the book Science of Avatar or so, as well as researching throughout quora, I can't give too much details either because I don't want to share too much $\endgroup$ – Neuryte Jul 24 '18 at 21:48
  • $\begingroup$ Your question is extremely complex, difficult and very broad. Not only is meteorology a very difficult subject that is so complex that with all the data we have collected up until now we cannot properly calculate the weather from yesterday. Of course climate is a different thing, but the problem is similar. Nobody can calculate your weather. People can come up with something, but ultimately they can't prove this. I highly doubt there even is reference data about planets like this in that detail. I just don't see how anyone can be expected to answer this. $\endgroup$ – ArtificialSoul Jul 25 '18 at 15:20
  • $\begingroup$ It is not a bad question (except for being very broad), but it is just not answerable. At least I do not see how. What might be better answerable is describing your world including the climate you wish for and people can try to reason if that combination could possibly work or not. But even that is way beyond most people. Even though we have some very eager and educated people on here. I think you might have to handwave that. $\endgroup$ – ArtificialSoul Jul 25 '18 at 15:24
  • $\begingroup$ It's okay, it's understandable, speculations. $\endgroup$ – Neuryte Jul 25 '18 at 18:14

Your atmosphere is a little off. To start, it's a bit of a lean mixture Oxygen-wise. Earth's atmosphere is 21% O₂. If you drop below 19.5%, side effects start showing up in humans. At 15%, any physical activity will leave a human exhausted very quickly. Earth's atmosphere is 390 PPM CO₂. That's 0.039%. Anywhere from 4-6% CO₂ is a lethal level for humans. In fact, you're not supposed to be exposed to higher than 0.5% (5,000 PPM) for any length of time.

As to what you're asking about how weather would be affected, some of that depends on the presence or absence of a moon. On Earth the moon is the main contributing factor to tides. If there's no moon, your coastlines will be subject to a good deal less tidal erosion.

Another thing to think about is tropical cyclones (hurricanes, typhoons, etc.). Tropical cyclones serve as a kind of heat engine, moving it away from the tropics into the temperate and arctic zones. With a tilt as extreme as your world has, you're going to have much hotter summers. That, combined with the shallower oceans, means you're going to have hotter water in the tropics. That will lead to both a greater number of storms and a greater intensity of those storms compared to Earth.

  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for the answer, though I'm not necessarily focused on the habitability regarding about this question, just the climate. Helpful though $\endgroup$ – Neuryte Jul 24 '18 at 21:03
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ People live in the Ethiopean highlands at about 3 to 3.5 km height, which is about 14.3 to 13.5 % of Oxygen. About 600k people live on the higher areas of Tibetan plateau exceeding 4.5 km with less than 11.9% oxygen. The highest city is La Rinoconada in Peru with an altitude of 5.1 km and only about 11% oxygen. Humans would have easily adapted the 15% Oxygen level. $\endgroup$ – Otto Abnormalverbraucher Jul 25 '18 at 15:36

A bit of googling returned me this image of Earth with an axial tilt double than what it is today, close enough to your case. Note that the polar circles would be closer to the Equator than the Tropics.

49 degree tilted earth

As you can see the seasonal differences would be rather extreme: during summer the day would be longer, while in winter shorter than what we have on Earth.

In the tropics in particular during summer you would have 28 hours day around solstice, with therefore very high temperatures, while in winter you would have 28 hours night, again around solstice, with extremely low temperatures.

I am not sure that the minimum temperature would stay at 80 F in these regions during winter, even taking into account the inertia of the atmosphere. Maybe the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere can set a sufficient greenhouse effect to keep temperatures high.

  • $\begingroup$ Would the thicker atmosphere make the night and dark areas pretty warm as well? $\endgroup$ – Neuryte Jul 24 '18 at 19:43

With an axial tilt of 53 degrees, one thing to note is that the planetary average temperature would be similar all over, with little difference between the equator and the poles.

However, the seasonal variation difference would be intense.


Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.