When you teleport something from place A to place B you have to compensate for various differences between the two locations.
For example, the asteroid or planet to be mined will be moving in a different velocity (direction and speed) that the asteroid, planet, or space habitat which is the destination.
In our solar system, the orbital velocity of Mercury is about 47.8725 km/sec and the orbital velocity of Neptune is about 5.4778 km/sec. When Neptune and Mercury are lined up in a straight line with the sun and on the same side they are traveling in parallel directions and the speed difference is 47.8725 minus 5.4778 or 42.3947 km/sec. At times in their orbits when they are lined up with the sun and are on opposite sides of the sun, they are traveling in opposite directions and the difference in their velocity is 47.8725 plus 5.4778 or 53.3503 km/sec. The velocity difference between two different objects in the solar system is constantly changing between minimum and maximum and also changing in direction.
Also, all natural bodies naturally rotate. And all space habitats built by humans will be built as cylinders and made to rotate to provide simulated gravity on the inside of the cylinders, until and unless a method of generating gravity is discovered. And of course, the direction of rotation of a spot on or in a rotating body is constantly changing, and thus the direction of rotation of the minerals that are in that spot.
Therefore the object that is mined and the destination of the minerals will have different orbital speeds and different speeds of rotation, as well as different orbital and rotational directions.
And if the difference in total velocity is small enough, the minerals teleported in will bang around a little without doing any damage. But if the total velocity difference is high enough, the teleported minerals will do a lot of damage. And if the velocity difference is high enough, the teleported minerals can cause an explosion like an atomic bomb.
For example, a stony asteroid about 10 meters (33 feet) in diameter entering Earth's atmosphere at a speed of tens of kilometers per second can create a 20 kiloton explosion - about equal to that of "fat man" at Nagasaki - in the air, and such airbursts are now known to happen about once a year.
The energy in the Tunguska explosion is now estimated to be "only" equal to 3 to 5 megatons of TNT, and thus about 130 to 300 times the energy of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. It was caused by a small comet or a rocky asteroid about 60 meters (200 feet) wide traveling tens of kilometers per second relative to Earth.
The extinction of the dinosaurs may have been caused by the Chicxulub impact of a body 10 to 15 kilometers (6.2-9.3 miles) in diameter traveling at tens of kilometers per second and releasing energy equivalent to 10 billion Hiroshima atomic bombs.
So a method of handling the velocity differences between the departure point and the destination point is necessary when teleporting between different objects in the same solar system.
Our Sun also orbits around the center of the galaxy with a speed of about 300 kilometers per second. A solar system orbiting at the same distance on the far side of the galaxy would have about the same speed in the opposite direction, and thus there would be a velocity difference of about 600 kilometers per second to allow for when teleporting objects from such a solar system to our solar system.
In E.E. Smith's Lensman series starships can become inertialess to travel much faster than light, but when a starship turns off the inertialess drive and become inert again its original velocity - and its difference from that of the destination - returns. Thus careful maneuvering is required to prevent the starship from slamming into the destination planet at great speed and devastating the planet.
This makes it very difficult to transfer even a single person or a much smaller object between two different space ships with different inert velocities, and it is used as a weapon by moving planets with inertialess drive, turning off the inertialess drive once they are in position, and letting their intrinsic velocities smash them into target planets. The Lensman series has some very big explosions.
There is also the difference in gravitational potential energy between different objects at different distances from the center of gravity of an astronomical object.
For example, objects that are higher on Earth have more potential energy than objects that are lower, because they could potentially fall farther toward the center of the Earth. An object that fell from an infinite distance to Earth would be accelerated to a velocity of 11.186 kilometers per second. And that is also the velocity needed for an object to escape from Earth's gravity - the escape velocity.
The escape velocity from the surface of the Sun is 617.5 kilometers per second. But at Earth's distance from the Sun, the escape velocity from the solar system is only 42.1 kilometers per second.
From the table, you can see that each body in the solar system has a different escape velocity, and each body with a different distance from the sun also has a different solar system escape velocity.
Thus the total escape velocity from Earth and the solar system is 53.286 km/sec, and the total escape velocity from Pluto and the solar system is about 7.83 km/sec, etc.
At the Sun's distance from the center of the galaxy, the escape velocity from the galaxy is about 492 to 594 km/sec. Thus the total escape velocity from Earth, the solar system, and the galaxy should be about 545.286 to 647.286 km.sec. And the potential energy of an object at a particular position should be proportional to the total of all the escape velocities at that position.
So teleporting an object from one astronomical body to another should cause a significant change in the object's potential energy.
So you should read Larry Niven's story "By Mind Alone" (1966).
And his article "The Theory and Practice of Teleportation".
Once you decide how your teleportation system will handle the differences in velocity and potential energy, you can then calculate those differences for various known and imaginary astronomical bodies and decide whether planets or asteroids would be better for teleportation based mining.