Since your world is a future Earth that makes one possible solution possible. Although this could only happen a very, very long way in the the future. In fact, the very far future.
Allow for enough continental drift to move the continents out of the way to permit a planet-girdling free path. This is essentially similar to the Roaring Forties circling Antarctica. Continents break up and literally put the brakes wind circulation patterns. Once the continents are out of the way, the wind circulation pattern simply goes on unchecked. This is effectively a permanent ring of storms.
This future Earth could have a hotter global climate. This would greatly assist the existence of a ring of storms. A hotter Earth will have more energy in its weather systems. This means inevitably more powerful storms and much more extreme weather generally. For example, this would be especially true if the continent-free path was located as this Earth's equator.
There is no weapon or super-weapon our species is likely to develop that is capable of creating the ring of storms. Although this might become possible in the far future. However, this answer has stuck to possible natural systems like a hotter Earth combined the continental drift to result in a planet ringed with permanent storms (where on the planet is left as an exercise for the OP)
This answer notes and acknowledges its similarities to the good answer already posted by @user53733. We were drawing on similar ideas.