I’m mostly looking for if it would cut better, but anything helps.
closed as unclear what you're asking by L.Dutch♦, John, Rekesoft, sphennings, Mołot Jun 26 '18 at 8:13
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An electric sword, to put it simply, would be a rigid live wire. Why fight it at all? Just drop a nice bucklet of water at it and laugh as its welder fries.
If you want it to cut better, you need to make it sharper. To make it sharper, you need to make the metal harder so it will hold an edge better. Making it harder can also make it more brittle and likely to break during a fight.
Making it sharper is a two edged sword.....
Augmenting with electricity can help you win a fight because you can shock your opponent right through his sword every time you block or he blocks unless they wear insulated gauntlets.
Receiving 50,000 volts through your sword will make it highly likely you drop it.
From a historical perspective, augmenting blades was extremely rare but when it was done, the primary augmentation for blades was a toxin. By dipping a blade into something toxic, the blade does really 'cut better' because the blade strike doesn't have to be a 'critical hit' to be fatal; that is to say, you don't have to hit the heart or eyes or some other vital organ that either kills your opponent or neutralises their ability to fight.
Electricity won't make a sword cut better directly, but it might have two advantages. First is that the sword would give off a shock to the opponent on strike, effectively incapacitating the opponent for at least a short moment which presents a small window of opportunity for a more thorough strike. The second is that the power might be used to heat the sword up, which means that even a flat edge strike could burn, inflicting massive amounts of pain.
This of course assumes that you can get enough power into a sword to heat up that much metal in the blade, and that you yourself are insulated from both the electricity and/or the heat. Both these problems (power and insulation) represent significant engineering challenges if the sword and its wielder are to be just as agile as the opponent in a fight.