Sure. Assuming the water was fresh, clean water (if it's salt or contaminated with poisons or pathogens, there are other issues) there are two ways a field can be spoiled by a single flood.
First, it gets flooded and destroys the current crop. This will not normally render the field infertile. (Remember ancient Egypt where the annual flooding of the Nile onto farmer's fields was how they retained their fertility. The Nile flooded, it receded leaving wet soil and some new silt, the farmers then planted and had a good harvest. If the flooding failed, the next year's harvest would be poor and famine a risk.)
(Obviously if the floodwaters do not drain away, the field is ruined, but in that case you need to explain why it was dry in the first place, and how the farmers didn't know that it was prone to long-term inundation.)
The second is erosion removing the topsoil. This can ruin a field, though generally it takes more than a single rain. But with enough erosion, the field becomes unfarmable.
If you're not asking about permanent loss of the field, but just flooding during planting time, sure. It's easy. It happens all the time: Big rains on flatish land and you can get floodwaters which last for weeks. (E.g., the Minnesota/North Dakota boarder is flat, fertile farmland. It drains so slowly that it sometimes gets flooded in the spring for long periods and can remain waterlogged through the ideal planting time.)
In this case, the farmers are usually SOL because there's rarely land nearby which is (a) unused and not owned, and (b) fertile, and (c) not also flooded and (d) ready for plowing. Usually available land needs expensive prep, such as logging off of trees or removal of rocks, and this would take too long.