George R.R. Martin and his closest buddies wrote a series of books about that: Wild Cards.
The plot is that there is a planet, far away from Earth, that has their DNA and appearance exactly like ours, but their technological level is much more advanced.
They develop a virus, called Wild Card, that can give a person - human or alien - super powers beyond the ones you describe. The virus has a very high lethality rate, though - 90% of the infected die in a few hours after contact with the virus.
This puts the scientists who developed the virus in a dillema. If they use it on their fellow countrymen, they will be powerful enough to take down all their enemies on their planet, but most of their fellow countrymen will die. If they release it as a bioweapon on their enemies, the survivors will be an army of enraged supersoldiers, each as powerful as a DC comics superhero.
So they decide to test on Earth instead, for science. The plan is to study the virus so that they can develop a less lethal version while keeping the ability to give superpowers.. The virus is thrown over 40's NY and 100,000 people die instantly. Among the 10,000 survivors, 9,000 get deformed. Some few thousands do get superpowers.
The end result (for those scientists): when they try to get some specimens back home for studying they get their asses kicked. Everyone involved in the project except a desertor dies horribly. When a handful of survivors does make it to the aliens's planet on their own accord, one of them alone destroys multiple armies, including some from an allied race, single-handedly. The emperor of the alien planet is killed by a third generation victim of the virus they created.
There are multiple examples of "Let's create a challenge for the good guys" gone wrong in other literature as well.
In the Order of the Stick comics, gods create goblins, orcs, ogres etc. so that player characters can kill them for XP. Eventually the monsters form their own empire, empowered by a god of their own creation, and threaten the original goda themselves.
In Steven Universe, an alien creates a copy of herself for her human protégé to spar with, for experience. The alien is then forced out of existence for a few days - meanwhile her copy keeps trying to off the poor human.
In the Fallout series, billions of dollars were invested into a fake nuclear war in order to sell accomodation in underground vaults for civillians. The war eventually became real and the world was never the same again.
In the Deus Ex: Human Revolution videogame, the villains empower a supersoldier as part of their R&D, and then try to off said supersoldier when he is no longer needed. Their plan goes sideways spectacularly.