For a very long time humans lived without any kind of advanced culture. There was no writing, there was no philosophy, there was no profound thinking; and there was no thought given to the future, and as a consequence there was no certainty that the village / horde / tribe survived to live another day.
Because humans were hunter-gatherers, and hunter-gatherers don't plan.
Now, as we say in project management, failing to plan means planning to fail. Life in a hunter-gatherer society may have been happy in the sense that the shadows in the underworld are happy after having drunk the waters of Lethe, with no stress because they lived in an eternal present. Que será, será.
During those times the Earth had very few humans, who, by virtue of being so few, could find enough sustenance without exerting themselves too much. In dialectical and historical materialism this is called the primitive communism, which is a name just as fitting as "gift economy", and which has the advantage of not being self-contradictory: because without private property there can be no gifts; and everything is anyway a silly extrapolation of the habits of modern hunter-gatherers, which may or may not be a good indication of how out ancestors lived so many thousands of years ago.
This unstructured society endured for many millennia, until the time came when humans multiplied and expanded out of their confort zone, and sad realities of economy kicked in; for economy is basically the study of the allocation of scarce resources, and once the Earth got many humans, and humans had to live in places where they actually had to work, they had to organize themselves.
This organization, made necessary be the necessity to plan for the future, to coordinate agricultural work and to allocate scarce resources, took the form -- to continue using the clear terminology of Marxist dialectical and historical materialism -- of the first and second social division of labor. The first social division of labor was between men's work and women's work, and the second division was between those who lead and those who dig. (And this is of course a dream dreamt by Engels after reading Lewis Morgan's Ancient Society, which you can read too, and for free, grace to the selfless efforts of the Internt Archive.)
After that the world got more and more humans, and the struggle to feed them all pushed human society to the successive modes of production, slavery, feudalism, oriental tributary mode of production, capitalism, and it will, in the fullness of time, once we solve the pesky problem of the need to actually work, lead to the radiant future of communism, when we will return somehow to egalitary bliss. The hypothetical state of the world when all basic needs can be satisfy cheaply and effortlessly is usually called post-scarcity economy and is a popular topic of study by economists, sociologists and science-fiction writers who want to escape the depressing reality of work and strife.
We cannot return to the lifestyle of our pre-agricultural ancestors, because the Earth cannot feed more than a few million hunter-gatherer humans. What we can do is to strive relentlessly for scientific and technological progress, so that at an unspecified time in the future we achieve a state where economic scarcity will disappear. With no economic scarcity the need to organize human society in an elaborate pattern of overlapping hierarchies will disappear, and all people will live happily in perfect equality...
Final twist and hook for the sequel
... under the benevolent supervision and guidance of the All-World Communist Party, led by the Great Helmsman, the Most Beloved Son of the People.