Along with my answer here:
In a future where lasers are the weapon of choice, why not wear mirrors?, you will want to consider the wavelength of the lasers, as different materials react to different wavelengths differently.
Mirrors can be reflective to just visible light, just UV, or probably a variety of other ranges of light. The material of the reflective portion of a mirror is also critical. When using my 80 watt CO2 laser cutter, I can't etch the reflective side of a mirror, but I can etch the back of the mirror to remove the reflective material, but only for some types of mirrors.
At the bottom of my linked answer, I did some testing of potential "armor" materials and posted the video to YouTube: https://youtu.be/WkOQffTjsC8.
I would suggest Googling "laser safe materials", then depending on what type of laser you're facing, don't use those materials. Often times, a list of laser safe materials will list materials that aren't safe, too. This unsafe list might also tell you why it's unsafe. For a CO2 laser, metals are unsafe up to a certain wattage of laser due to reflection. PVC, on the other hand, is unsafe because it releases chlorine gas at any wattage able to vaporize the material.
You might even have different laser systems depending on the material of the opponent ship. This could have the effect of your captain asking a science officer what the material makeup of the ship is before firing on them.
The makerspace I use the laser cutter at has their own list: http://wiki.qccolab.com/index.php?title=LC6090#Approved_Materials. This is specific to CO2 laser cutters. If you're using solid state or other lasers, you'll need different lists.
In my linked answer, I also have a list for different protection methods that could be adapted to "space lasers of TW" power. It includes all kind of safety goggles, windows, and other documentation.
As far as mass and heat sinks are concerned, industrial lasers of the KW range can cut 1" (25.4mm) thick steel and thicker with relative ease. Rotating, changing direction, or anything so "the laser won't be hitting a point but a line" will effectively be cutting your hull, or even your ship, into multiple pieces. A few punctures are much easier to deal with than gouges or a massive amount of punctures. Just ask the Titanic crew and designer.
Solar panels only work with certain waves lengths, only convert a fraction of the light to electricity, and have a maximum amount of light they can deal with.
As far as the "glass ship" is concerned, what about the organics within? They'll get the full blast of the laser instead of your ship, so will any wiring and anything else that can't be made transparent.
Using water as clouds, coolant, or other materials for the same all take mass that a ship would have to accelerate, which there's a point at which this becomes detrimental to your space fight. What is more important, maneuverability or attempting to deal with the laser directly?
A "space laser" would attempt to be a perfectly collimated beam, so that it would have the same effect at 1 AU as it is at 0.1 AU, as well as 10 AU. Current technology doesn't allow that to happen, but future tech could bring that much closer to ideal. This means that simple distance may not be an option.
As for "not be there", it's pretty hard to avoid something that travels at the speed of light. You have no way to detect a laser in time, then move out of it's way unless they miss and you see dust vaporizing in it's path or you have precognition. Even if this happens, the sniper/bombardier/targeting specialist/computer/whatever will be able to re-aim the laser faster than your ship can get out of the way.
Getting behind a planet is a decent idea, but how long is it going to take to do that? And is your opponent going to be following you there? How will you fire your laser back?
What might work is a lens to de-focus the laser. A laser cutter works with a collimated beam of laser, then passes it through a lens to focus it at the surface of the material you are trying to cut. If you do the reverse, it'll spread the laser light to be much less effective over a much larger area. You can move a "small" lens of 12" (304.8mm) (or whatever size you need) and it's framework faster than you can a 1 million ton spaceship.
In a laser cutter, you have to clean the lens on occasion. I've accidentally put the lens in backwards, and then it has next to no cutting power. Even the collimated beam has more cutting power than the light going "backwards" through the focusing lens.
Also, a lens that bends the light to a different angle, like a prism, would help, if you can get it to bend far enough to avoid your hull entirely. Something like fiber optic cable, at a massively enlarged scale, might work. Optic cable has a minimum bending radius, but if you keep that in mind, you could shoot the laser right back, without using mirrors.
As a reminder, this question has a "science-based" tag, not "hard-science", so please remember this when making comments. I do not pretend to have all the answers, just the ones I wrote down. Unfortunately, with all the answers I wrote down, it would be pretty easy to think I am pretending to have all the answers. ;-)