The largest traces would be cities (it takes a lot to wipe out even a prehistoric settlement, and there's no way all modern cities could be thoroughly covered in sand).
Then, mines: there are mining operations that extend for kilometers, and you're not going to "lose" one in ten thousand years unless you employ several decent-sized asteroid strikes.
Any new civilization would require mineral resources, and would find most ore deposits to have already been mined out. They'd also find large landfills here and there, with lots of refined minerals, plastics and so on.
Moreover, this would conclusively demonstrate that the previous civilization was pretty advanced: not only several special steels and alloys will easily last ten thousand years, but a less advanced civilization could never have produced such traces.
And of course pollution. We can pretty well map out atmospheric composition for the last 30,000 years and more in the Antarctic ice cores. There are several distinctive layers of soot there now (which actually defeat the purpose).
Finally, radioactive traces. There's no reason why Schloch's alleged civilization should have produced them, but we did, and artificial isotopes such as technetium 99 are likely to outlive humanity. As soon as we started worrying about radionuclides and developed tests for them, we were able to map their relative abundance. There is no way we could have missed a 99Tc spike later than one million years ago, and there is no natural process that produces 99Tc (unlike 14C, which could be explained by a GRB, nasty solar flare, or alteration in the cosmic environment).
At what point in history would we have had to be wiped out so that there would be no trace of us after 10,000 years?
Around 20,000-30,000 BCE. After that date, we begin having reliable fossil evidence that made it to our era, two hundred centuries later. It follows that if someone wiped out the Altamira tribe, we would still find their paintings - unless the "wiping out" also included obliteration.
In that case it would depend on the obliterating technique. Still, I don't think you can get much later than 5,000 BCE at most.
While it is possible that stories about a Golden Age where man could fly, go to the Moon and watch Youporn would be dismissed as fantasy and myth, it is possible for such a memory to disappear completely.
It would take a lot, but there's something called damnatio memoriae - "damning of the memory". Imagine that the shock of the wipeout spurred a new religion - one where technology and the "old way of doing things" was blamed for God's wrath. The new Church "hierarchy" fixes very few proto-technological "tells" that are used to recognize anathema - "Thou shalt not make signs that convey meaning, unless larger than a man" or "Thou shalt not make use of anything that has been touched by fire, except for food".
Something of that kind appears in David Weber's Empire from the Ashes (the planet Pardal is inhabited by humans that have forsworn technology and succeeded in forgetting everything about their having been members of the Fourth Empire), as well as in the Safehold series of the same author. There are also several other stories (e.g. Wyndham's The Wheel, Startling Stories, January 1952).