In theory it could evolve... however, it would take a long long time.
It's possible that a somewhat chest shaped (but not looking creature) hiding in a darkened room could be mistaken at first glance by a human, and this trait is what evolution picked to continue forward and over a few thousand years those traits continued to succeed. Thus it became more chest looking, but it would still probably only work in a darkish room, where the mistaken identity would be easier.
But there are a few other options:
Does it have to be natural?
If magic was the answer then this would be easy, but even without magic, selective breeding can yield the required results a lot lot faster than conventional evolution. Maybe some organisation wanted a treasure guard, and so over a hundred or few hundred years selectively bred a creature to look more and more like a treasure chest. This has been done with racing pigeons a long time ago I admit, but a pigeon breeder (can't find the article now) over a hundred years ago said he could give you a new breed of pigeons in 25 years.
Now these would still be pigeons, but they would look different enough to be classed as a new breed, same thing here. But it is only so quick with pigeons because they have such a fast reproductive cycle.
You need the organisation to want to create this crature and to spend the time selecting the correct traits to breed them and hope that those traits as passed down. And then once they look close enough, breed the aggression into them...
Does the chest have to be alive?
It's a stretch from you original concept but have you considered creatures such as hermit crabs? They find existing items and turn them into their homes, they'll find suitable sized shells that are naturally around the world and then get inside and walk around. It has been documented on a few occasions that they will climb inside empty food cans. It's possible that another creature could have evolved that needed the space of a treasure chest, i know this is not exactly the same thing as the chest itself actually being a live creature, but it's a possible workaround...