Herbert's Dune had it's Butlerian Jihad and Asimov's Foundation had it's banning of robots.
No matter how good things are going some people will want to blame the system for their unrealized dreams. If that system includes robots then they are an easy target since they are not human and have no moral advocate.
Think how, in the US and other places, immigrants (legal or not), are often blamed for society's shortcomings whether it's true or not. Business concerns will even contribute (often surreptitiously) to this belief because it is a distraction from the real economics of what's happening (shipping jobs overseas, automation, and mostly wage suppression).
Othertimes, would-be leaders/tyrants, use existing bigotry to put themselves at the fore of a movement and gather power for themselves. Doesn't matter the cause or who the scapegoats are as long as they get power.
Who will morally speak for the robots? In the past and still today, Gypsies, Mexicans, Albanians, Africans, etc, get blamed not only for low wages/lack of work, but also for crime and moral decline. Current US president is a recent example of promoting it with no facts needed. Then the stories of women and children, families, come into the debate and there's a softening in the bigotry of many and a counterargument. No such possibility for robots since no babies or families.
Proof of this use for ulterior purposes is that illegal immigration could be ended in a day by seizing or very heavily fining the companies that hire such workers. Apart from an occasional raid for appearance sake or business/political motivation this does not occur and even then workers are replaced immediately with more undocumented (or obviously falsely documented) workers (or the same people who can make the return trip in a day). It is not the will of the powers that be to end such practice, but it is their will to keep the scapegoat issue alive and charged as a smokescreen for the appeasement of the population.
Post-apocalypse there wouldn't be the political power to retain it both ways, blaming them for all the problems and keeping them for the cheap, disposable labor.