So there are loads of things that are taken into account with weather from geology to water currents to axial tilt etc. But i am wondering what the effects would be on weather on planets with varying strengths of gravity in comparison to Earth.
If we call Earth standard for any approximates, averages and estimations, how would a planet that has a greater or lesser gravity come out in the weather game? How would it affect rain, snow, hail, and thunderstorms.
Having an atmosphere in which to contain said weather is implied across the board. Lets also say that all planets are not recently terraformed and that they had atmospheres from beginning.
Edit : Thanks to all for the answers so far. I apologize for it being too broad. I would also like to state i do not mind assumptions made from extrapolated information off of real world data. I understand we do not have all the answers currently and really just want best guess in the face of such.
So to help narrow this Let us assume that we are starting with an earth sized planet, with distance from star being the same as earth and a day length period the same as earth. We will use Mass as the variable within density that is being manipulated.
Let us also call the current thought of axial tilt and habitable climate as true and say that any and all tilts taken into account fall mostly earth like tilts with no more than a 3 degree change and the mirror of that range.
Lets also say the Star is either equal to our sun, or is no more than 1.1x its mass. No matter the size of the Star, the Planet will be within its habitable zone in a orbit as earthlike as possible.
Overall, we are taking the planet to be earth in just about every facet, except gravity via density via mass. Let us say the current air patterns are the same, and the current Water currents are the same. Say even Geography is the same so that we can watch merely how Gravity plays upon the weather.
I am interested mostly in how the changing of the density alters the gravity and how that alters the weather. I am kind of confused on it, because the thicker air could in theory hold a hailstone aloft longer because it has to move through a greater air resistance, but by the same token it would be heavier. At what point would rain become as dangerous as a hailstorm currently if there is a point? At what point would hail float down like heavy snowflakes, or would the atmosphere dissipate before such could occur? At what point would water based precipitation begin occurring as what we think of as sea level with lighter gases forming clouds above them, Or would the differences in the weight of everything compensate for it all so that it all kept at the same levels?