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I was wondering if people who lived on Mars could eventually evolve to a state where they are unable to live normally in a human society on Earth? So, I continue, what would have changed? For instance I know their height because of the lower gravity, and the heart being able to pump more blood, but what other effects?

Edit: What I mean is, what are the consequences of people potentially coming back from mars after say, 10 000 years. Also, what traits might they have gotten from living on Mars.

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closed as too broad by JohnWDailey, Frostfyre, rek, James Mar 9 '18 at 15:27

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

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    $\begingroup$ Reminder to close-voters: The problem cannot be fixed if the OP is not made aware of it. $\endgroup$ – Frostfyre Mar 9 '18 at 13:39
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    $\begingroup$ That being said, welcome to the site! This question has been flagged as unclear what you're asking and may be put on hold until a clarifying edit is made. Personally, I find it inconceivable that a human descendant wouldn't be able to live normally in a human society. I would suggest clarifying what about society you want them to be incompatible. Is it actually a physics problem, such as being unable to deal with the different surface gravity between Mars and Earth? If you haven't already, feel free to take the tour to get a better understanding of the site. $\endgroup$ – Frostfyre Mar 9 '18 at 13:42
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    $\begingroup$ I've VTC on the grounds that this is too broad, bordering on "come up with a list of all possible changes and their ramifications". Compare to a more concise question, such as "how would an enlarged Martian heart complicate integrating to life among humans on Earth?" $\endgroup$ – rek Mar 9 '18 at 15:13
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    $\begingroup$ @RonJohn This question is perfectly acceptable on this site. And I doubt the biology SE folks would accept something this speculative. $\endgroup$ – James Mar 9 '18 at 15:23
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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to the site Dr. JJ. As @Frostfyre mentioned as it stands your question may be put on hold. SE is a little different than a standard forum/discussion board. Take a minute to check out the tour and help center to get an idea of how the site works. It is probably worth taking a look at some other questions tagged evolution as well to get a feel for how they are written. Good luck and happy world building. $\endgroup$ – James Mar 9 '18 at 15:25
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I would think the most immediate concern would be susceptibility to disease. An isolated community on Mars would certainly not evolve the same immunizations as people on Earth. Just the difference in population sizes alone would dictate different epidemiological profiles.

I would expect that isolation procedures for those going to Mars would be quite severe.

Thus, people returning to Earth from a long generational genetic history on Mars would perhaps be susceptible to new evolving diseases on Earth.

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  • $\begingroup$ An interesting point but susceptibility to disease isn't, strictly speaking, a genetic change. $\endgroup$ – James Mar 9 '18 at 15:27
  • $\begingroup$ It is if you extend the premise to consider the genetic change of viruses and bacteria. $\endgroup$ – Justin Thyme Mar 9 '18 at 15:37
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    $\begingroup$ Perhaps but that is not what the question is asking about. And the problem isn't a genetic defect but the bodies of the martians or humans not having established immunity to the new disease. $\endgroup$ – James Mar 9 '18 at 15:39
  • $\begingroup$ The problem does not specifically mention genetics at all. Just asks for hazards of extended generational living on Mars. Medical issues, including disease, definitely fall within those parameters. 'Evolve' is a term with more widely applied parameters than just genetics. Consider the Sherpas of Nepal, for instance. They evolved to withstand the conditions of high altitudes. $\endgroup$ – Justin Thyme Mar 9 '18 at 15:44
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    $\begingroup$ @James not technically accurate, biological evolution may occur that way, but evolution is a more general term that applies to many other facets of existence. $\endgroup$ – Callum Bradbury Mar 12 '18 at 13:22
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The gravity factor is the biggie. We can emulate almost every other living condition from Earth by building indoor habitats, growing and consuming Earth flora and fauna, even if technology progresses to the point where we could terraform large swathes of the planet. But we can't increase Mars' gravity.

Muscle mass and density is the quickest thing to change in low-gravity environments (we can see this in astronauts after just a few weeks in space). Over much longer periods, there's still a lot of guesswork involved but yes, height is likely to change as well as the development of the skeleton over a lifetime. Somebody who grew up on Mars would find it very unpleasant to experience Earth-like gravity.

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