I am considering writing a fantasy novel. This novel would be set on an earth-like planet, but certain story details require that the planet have either a much larger or much closer moon than Earth does. I'll be honest and say that I know virtually nothing about planet mechanics, and don't know what the differences would be between having the moon be the same size but closer, or the same distance away but bigger, than our Moon. Some insight into those differences, if they are significant, would be appreciated.
This is about the size of moon I want. Note that I am speaking of the smaller, ringed planet/moon, not the second, much larger, planet.
What I'm after are all different effects (different from our own Moon) of having such a moon on water bodies, but also climate, weather, geology, and anything else which might be changed by having such a large/close moon.
For all purposes, assume the moon is of the exact composition of our Moon, just larger/closer. A comparison (if there are significant differences) between having the moon be larger versus having it be closer than our Moon would be appreciated.
NOTE: If additional details are required, I am happy to provide them. Please let me know what you need via a comment.