1- Glaciations: This phenomenon appears in regions close to the poles. The last glaciations covered North America but also Northern Europe and Asia. On an earth-like planet, places far from the poles are not affected unless the temperatures drop to a very low point.
Our planet had several ice ages in the past. This creates a movement of the ice sheets. They move south when the temperature gets colder. When they melt, they start moving again. All the movements cause erosion and can move a large amount of land with it. The fjords in Norway are a good example of this process.
When they melt, sometimes the water can reach the ocean, but not always. The natural geography of the land, but also the weight and movement of the ice can lead to the creation of lakes when the ice is melting. That is why Canada and Finland have so many lakes.
2- Water flow: It is important to know that water is always flowing downhill and always use the shortest route available to reach the sea, or the closest large water body. The shortest route depends on the surrounding landscape, an obstacle can prevent water from flowing in a particular direction, such as a higher elevation. Rivers rarely splits and if they do, it's generally on small rivers and it's only temporary. The erosion process will be uneven and eventually, there will be only one river.
More about river bifurcation can be found here: How (un)likely is a split of one major river into two others?
The exception for this is the delta. Deltas are form with the accumulation of sediments carried by the river (dirt, sand, organic sediments). The formation of the delta can be temporary or permanent depending on the origins of the sediments.
Lastly, the flow of water erodes the landscape. Younger rivers tend to be straight with smoother banks. Older rivers are more sinuous and can have steep banks due to erosion. Some river, old enough can create deep valleys.
On lakes: lakes tend to have only one output river (if any). Since water always take the shortest route, you are unlikely to have to have two places at the same dept.
3- The freeze/unfreeze cycle can also create interesting formation such as the pingo. The water into the ground changes the shape of the land at each cycle :
But they are usually too small to be represented in most maps.
*These are the factors I know but there could be others.