2 Added more examples
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Urdu and Hindi are another example of this. The grammar and a large part of the vocabulary is essentially identical between the languages, but the writing in Urdu is based on Arabic and some vocabulary -- mostly formal or poetic language -- is from Arabic and Persian roots. In contrast, the writing in Hindi comes from Sanskrit, as do the corresponding poetic and formal language terms.

Someone who speaks Urdu or Hindi can readily converse with speakers of the other language (although they might recognize from certain word choices and/or accent that it is a speaker of the other language), but if they wanted, they could also probably make themselves unintelligible by switching to a very formal register of speech.

This multilingual sign demonstrates this. The top line is in Hindi (written in devanagri script) and the bottom right is in Urdu nastaliq script. multilingual sign

(You can see a direct comparison of the characters in wikipedia as well.)

Edit: I thought of more examples.

You mentioned Cyrillic. This was a script brought into Slavic lands by Christian missionaries, who adapted it from Greek characters. It is hypothesized that a runic script was used by the Slavs before this. People who were educated in the new script would very likely not be able to read the runes and vice versa.

How could I forget Japanese? They have 3 sets of characters used in their modern language, plus of course transliteration to Roman characters. They use kanji (adapted from Chinese hanzi), hiragana (for spelling words out in syllables) and katakana (generally used for spelling or foreign words and a few other uses). Foreign learners often start off learning Japanese with transliterated romaji (the Japanese equivalent of pinyin, essentially) and may never progress past hiragana to read kanji. Children start with katakana and hiragana as well.

You can also consider that a person who has vision impairment or a disorder such as dislexia might still be highly educated and articulate while having serious difficulties with the written form of language.

There are also languages with no native written form, such as Navajo.

Finally, you do not have to look back far in history to find a culture where a large group of people was socially segregated and not permitted to learn to read. In the US, before slavery was abolished, slaves were not permitted to learn to read. Some individuals were still able to become strong orators.

Urdu and Hindi are another example of this. The grammar and a large part of the vocabulary is essentially identical between the languages, but the writing in Urdu is based on Arabic and some vocabulary -- mostly formal or poetic language -- is from Arabic and Persian roots. In contrast, the writing in Hindi comes from Sanskrit, as do the corresponding poetic and formal language terms.

Someone who speaks Urdu or Hindi can readily converse with speakers of the other language (although they might recognize from certain word choices and/or accent that it is a speaker of the other language), but if they wanted, they could also probably make themselves unintelligible by switching to a very formal register of speech.

This multilingual sign demonstrates this. The top line is in Hindi (written in devanagri script) and the bottom right is in Urdu nastaliq script. multilingual sign

(You can see a direct comparison of the characters in wikipedia as well.)

Urdu and Hindi are another example of this. The grammar and a large part of the vocabulary is essentially identical between the languages, but the writing in Urdu is based on Arabic and some vocabulary -- mostly formal or poetic language -- is from Arabic and Persian roots. In contrast, the writing in Hindi comes from Sanskrit, as do the corresponding poetic and formal language terms.

Someone who speaks Urdu or Hindi can readily converse with speakers of the other language (although they might recognize from certain word choices and/or accent that it is a speaker of the other language), but if they wanted, they could also probably make themselves unintelligible by switching to a very formal register of speech.

This multilingual sign demonstrates this. The top line is in Hindi (written in devanagri script) and the bottom right is in Urdu nastaliq script. multilingual sign

(You can see a direct comparison of the characters in wikipedia as well.)

Edit: I thought of more examples.

You mentioned Cyrillic. This was a script brought into Slavic lands by Christian missionaries, who adapted it from Greek characters. It is hypothesized that a runic script was used by the Slavs before this. People who were educated in the new script would very likely not be able to read the runes and vice versa.

How could I forget Japanese? They have 3 sets of characters used in their modern language, plus of course transliteration to Roman characters. They use kanji (adapted from Chinese hanzi), hiragana (for spelling words out in syllables) and katakana (generally used for spelling or foreign words and a few other uses). Foreign learners often start off learning Japanese with transliterated romaji (the Japanese equivalent of pinyin, essentially) and may never progress past hiragana to read kanji. Children start with katakana and hiragana as well.

You can also consider that a person who has vision impairment or a disorder such as dislexia might still be highly educated and articulate while having serious difficulties with the written form of language.

There are also languages with no native written form, such as Navajo.

Finally, you do not have to look back far in history to find a culture where a large group of people was socially segregated and not permitted to learn to read. In the US, before slavery was abolished, slaves were not permitted to learn to read. Some individuals were still able to become strong orators.

1
source | link

Urdu and Hindi are another example of this. The grammar and a large part of the vocabulary is essentially identical between the languages, but the writing in Urdu is based on Arabic and some vocabulary -- mostly formal or poetic language -- is from Arabic and Persian roots. In contrast, the writing in Hindi comes from Sanskrit, as do the corresponding poetic and formal language terms.

Someone who speaks Urdu or Hindi can readily converse with speakers of the other language (although they might recognize from certain word choices and/or accent that it is a speaker of the other language), but if they wanted, they could also probably make themselves unintelligible by switching to a very formal register of speech.

This multilingual sign demonstrates this. The top line is in Hindi (written in devanagri script) and the bottom right is in Urdu nastaliq script. multilingual sign

(You can see a direct comparison of the characters in wikipedia as well.)